Palladium(II) saccharinate complexes with bis(2-pyridylmethyl) amine induce cell death by apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in vitro


ARI F. , Ulukaya E., SARIMAHMUT M. , YILMAZ V. T.

BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY, vol.21, no.11, pp.3016-3021, 2013 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.03.073
  • Title of Journal : BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY
  • Page Numbers: pp.3016-3021
  • Keywords: Palladium(II) and platinum(II) complexes, Breast Cancer, Cytotoxicity, Apoptosis, POTENTIAL ANTITUMOR AGENTS, PLATINUM(II) COMPLEXES, BIOLOGICAL-ACTIVITY, ANTICANCER ACTIVITY, CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY, GROWTH-INHIBITION, CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE, PD(II) COMPLEXES, BLADDER-CANCER, DNA

Abstract

The outcomes of breast cancer patients are still poor although new compounds have recently been introduced into the clinic. Therefore, novel chemical approaches are required. In the present study, palladium( II) and corresponding platinum(II) complexes containing bis(2-pyridylmethyl) amine (bpma) and saccharine were synthesized and tested against human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, in vitro. Cytotoxicity was first screened by the MTT assay and the results were further confirmed by the ATP assay. The palladium complexes 1 and 3 yielded stronger cytotoxicity than the corresponding platinum complexes 2 and 4 at the same doses. The palladium complex 3 was found to be the most cytotoxic one. Therefore, a more comprehensive study was carried out with this complex only. The mode of cell death was determined morphologically under fluorescent microscope and biochemically with detection of active caspase-3 and PARP cleavage by Western blot. Changes in apoptosis-related gene expressions were measured with qPCR. It was demonstrated that complex 3 caused cell death by apoptosis determined by fluorescence imaging and Western blot. As a sign of apoptosis, PARP was cleaved in both of the cell lines. In addition, caspase-3 was cleaved in MDA-MB-231 cells while this cleavage was not observed in MCF-7. The results show that the complex 3 is a promising anti-cancer compound against breast cancer with an IC50 value of 3.9 mu M for MCF-7 and 4.2 mu M for MDA-MB-231 cells, which warrants further animal experiments. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.