Spatial Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Concentrations in Soils from Bursa, Turkey.

Karaca G.

Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol.70, no.2, pp.406-17, 2016 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 70 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00244-015-0248-2
  • Title of Journal : Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology
  • Page Numbers: pp.406-17


The objectives of this study were to identify regional variations in soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in Bursa, Turkey, and to determine the distributions and sources of various PAH species and their possible sources. Surface soil samples were collected from 20 different locations. The PAH concentrations in soil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total PAH concentrations (Sigma(12) PAH) varied spatially between 8 and 4970 ng/g dry matter (DM). The highest concentrations were measured in soils taken from traffic+barbecue+residential areas (4970 ng/g DM) and areas with cement (4382 ng/g DM) and iron-steel (4000 ng/g DM) factories. In addition, the amounts of Sigma(7) carcinogenic PAH ranged from 1 to 3684 ng/g DM, and between 5 and 74 % of the total PAHs consisted of such compounds. Overall, 4-ring PAH compounds (Fl, Pyr, BaA and Chr) were dominant in the soil samples, with 29-82 % of the Sigma(12) PAH consisting of 4-ring PAH compounds. The Sigma(12) BaPeq values ranged from 0.1 to 381.8 ng/g DM. Following an evaluation of the molecular diagnostic ratios, it was concluded that the PAH pollution in Bursa soil was related to pyrolytic sources; however, the impact of petrogenic sources should not be ignored.