Background/Aim: Mortality resulting from cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is high. In this study we sought to investigate the clinical value of the malnutrition-inflammation-atherosclerosis (MIA) syndrome for long-term prediction of cardiovascular mortality in patients treated with ESRD. Methods: A total of 42 ESRD patients on hemodialysis were enrolled. Inflammatory markers and nutritional parameters were determined. Carotid atherosclerosis was investigated by ultrasonographically evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Mortality was evaluated at a 5-year follow-up. Results: No correlation was evident between nutritional markers and inflammatory indexes. cIMT was inversely correlated with predialysis serum albumin. In the overall population of 42 patients, 11 (26.2%) died of cardiovascular causes during follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicate that cIMT (>= 0.9 mm), C-reactive protein (CRP) (>1 mg/dl), and serum albumin (<3.5 g/dl) predict cardiovascular death in patients with ESRD. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that cIMT, CRP and serum albumin predict long-term mortality in ERSD patients. Our study suggests that further investigation of the MIA syndrome will provide insights into the susceptibility to CVD in this patient group. Copyright (C) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.