The present study examines the effect of the physical work environment on the creativity of knowledge workers, compared with the effects of creative personality and the social-organizational work environment. Based on data from 274 knowledge workers in 27 small and medium-sized enterprises, we conclude that creative personality, the social-organizational work environment, and the physical work environment independently affect creative performance. The relative contribution of the physical work environment is smaller than that of the social-organizational work environment, and both contributions are smaller than that of creative personality. The results give support for human resource practices that focus on the individual, the social-organizational work environment, and the physical work environment in order to enhance knowledge workers' creativity. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.