Various types of cancer are more frequent in men than women, and bladder cancer is one of the most common of these. Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) after transurethral resection is the most effective treatment for superficial bladder cancers. The main aim of this study was to investigate for possible links between cytokine gene polymorphisms and different outcomes after BCG immunotherapy. Sixty patients who had been diagnosed with transitional cell cancer were investigated. All genotyping experiments were performed using polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primers and a commercially available kit. The genes investigated were those that code for interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-1R, IL-1RA, IL-4RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon-7 (IFN-7), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Analyses of the data identified TGF-beta codon 25 GG (92.85% vs. 64.44%, p = 0.04, OR = 7.17), IL-4-1098 GG (16.6% vs. 0.0%, p = 0.05, OR = 18.33), 1L-10-1082 GG (28.5% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.05, OR = 5.47), and IL-10-1082 GCC/GCC (28.57% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.025, OR = 8.4) polymorphisms as risk factors for progression of bladder cancer. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.