In the present study, the genotoxic, hematoxic effects, and their relation with pathological and biochemical parameters of hexane were investigated. Cytogenetic evaluation performed on the bone marrow indicated that chromosome aberrations increased at both hexane doses in relation to the negative controls. Decreased hematocrit, hemoglobin concentrations, and mean corpuscular volume were observed on the whole blood counts. Conjugated dienes (CD), glutathione (GSH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and catalase (CAT) were increased. Histological examinations showed intracytoplasmic vacuolisation, nuclei with lower chromatin, and parenchymatous degenerations in the dose groups. In the bone marrow slides, depletion of the erythroid series were observed. In conclusion, hexane seems to be a genotoxic and hematoxic agent leading to degeneration and lipid peroxidation in exposed groups. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.