This study investigated the electrochemical detection of specific nucleic acid hybridization sequences using a nanofiber-coated pencil graphite biosensor. The biosensor was developed to detect Val66Met single point mutations in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, which is frequently observed in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and bipolar disorder. The oxidation signal of the most electroactive and stable DNA base, i.e., guanine, was used at approximately + 1.0 V. Pencil graphite electrode (PGE) surfaces were coated with polyacrylonitrile nanofibers by electrospinning. Cyclic voltammetry was applied to the nanofiber-coated PGE to pretreat its surfaces. The application of cyclic voltammetry to the nanofiber-coated PGE surfaces before attaching the probe yielded a four fold increase in the oxidation signal for guanine compared with that using the untreated and uncoated PGE surface. The signal reductions were 70% for hybridization, 10% for non-complementary binding, and 14% for a single mismatch compared with the probe. The differences in full match, non-complementary, and mismatch binding indicated that the biosensor selectively detected the target, and that it was possible to determine hybridization in about 65 min. The detection limit was 0.19 mu g/ml at a target concentration of 10 ppm.