This study was performed to investigate the relationships between markers of inflammation in serum (interleukin-6 [IL-6], interleukin-10 [IL-10], and granulocyte elastase [GE]), severity of injury, and clinical outcomes, and to evaluate the predictive value of these markers for major complications and mortality. This study, which was conducted between August 2003 and May 2005, examined patients older than 16 y who were admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Uludag University Medical School within 12 h after trauma, and who had traumatic hemorrhagic shock (THS) at admission. Three groups were established: the THS group (n=20), the pure hemorrhagic shock (PHS) group (n=20), and the healthy control group (n=20). Demographic data were recorded for all subjects, and blood samples were taken for lactate, base excess, GE, IL-6, and IL-1 0 measurements. The Glasgow Coma Score, the Revised Trauma Score, the Injury Severity Score, the New Injury Severity Score, and the Trauma Score-Injury Severity Score were calculated; complications and final clinical outcomes were monitored. A total of 35 men and 25 women were included in the study; mean patient age was 41 +/- 17 y. In the THS group, scores were as follows: Revised Trauma Score, 10.2 +/- 2.2; Trauma Score-Injury Severity Score, 0.86 +/- 0.2; Injury Severity Score, 24.8 +/- 9.0; and New Injury Severity Score, 32.7 +/- 9.0. IL-6, IL-10, lactate, and base excess levels in the THS group were significantly higher than those in the PHS and healthy control groups. The serum GE level of the THS group was significantly higher than that of the healthy control group, but it did not differ significantly from that of the PHS group. Complications such as sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure occurred in 50% of the THS group and in 20% of the PHS group. Mortality was 30% in the THS group and 10% in the PHS group. In the THS group, no significant differences were noted between markers of inflammation and trauma scores of patients who died and those who survived. The investigators concluded that although the levels of markers of inflammation increased in THS patients, they were inadequate for predicting mortality and the development of complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure, and sepsis. A larger study based on the use of serial marker measurements is warranted.