Introduction Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is rare in the first two decades of life comprising only 3% of newly diagnosed pediatric and adolescent leukemias. We studied the epidemiologic and clinical features of patients with CML diagnosed at younger than 3 years of age and evaluated treatment and long-term outcome. Method Data from the International Pediatric I-BFM/CML Registry were retrospectively analyzed using the European LeukemiaNet criteria of the year 2006. Characteristics and treatment outcome of patients Twenty-two patients (n = 22/479; 4.6%, male/female:14/8) were enrolled with a median age of 22 months (range, 10-34 m). Major symptoms comprised asthenia (30%), fever (30%), abdominal pain (20%), extramedullary signs (14%), hemorrhage (5%), and weight loss (5%). The extramedullary signs were specified in eight children: blueberry muffin (n = 1), sudden swollen abdomen (n = 1), sustained vomiting (n = 1), and cervical and inguinal lymph nodes (n = 5). Two of five children with cervical and inguinal lymph nodes were categorized as accelerated phase. Overall, 19 of 22 (86%) children were diagnosed in chronic phase, while the remaining three patients were in advanced phase. Median follow-up was 78 months (range, 7-196 m). Twenty-one out of 22 patients initially received imatinib, while one child received IFN + ARA-C. Imatinib was changed to second-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in 29% of cases. During follow-up, 41% patients underwent stem cell transplantation (SCT). While on TKI, major molecular response (MMR) was achieved in 48% of children. Among the remaining patients, 21% are alive on TKI without MMR and 22% achieved complete molecular response following SCT. Twenty-one of 22 (95%) children are alive, while one patient died of posttransplant complications. Conclusion This report demonstrates for the first time the efficacy and long-term effects of upfront imatinib in the so far largest cohort of children with CML diagnosed at very young age.