Background Atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) is a precursor lesion of prostate cancer (PC), and PC develops from this suspicious focus or an unsampled malignant gland nearby. However, PC-related molecular alterations that could guide the timing of repeat biopsies and help monitor PC risk in ASAP-diagnosed patients have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to first investigate the expression of seven different PC-related RNAs that included serine 2 (TMPRSS2): erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) gene (TMPRSS2-ERG, T2E) fusion, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), kallikrein related peptidase 3 (KLK3), androgen receptor (AR), prostate cancer specific antigen 3 (PCA3), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9. Methods PC-related RNAs were evaluated using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) system in pathologically ASAP-diagnosed prostate biopsy cores from 55 patients presenting with a normal digital rectal examination and a PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL. Results We detected that positive T2E fusion status (P = 0.013) and the expression of AMACR (P = 0.016), AR (P = 0.016) and MMP-2 (P = 0.013) were independently and significantly associated with PC risk in ASAP patients. There were also several statistically significant correlations between expression levels. Additionally, we demonstrated that T2E fusion positive ASAP patients with higher MMP-2 expression were more likely to be diagnosed with PC at a subsequent biopsy during the follow-up period (P = 0.003). Conclusions Although, more clinical validations are needed for the stratification of PC risk in ASAP-diagnosed biopsy cores, our current results indicate that the coexistence of T2E fusion positivity with MMP-2 upregulation may help clinicians adjust their biopsy timetable and/or assessment of PC risk in ASAP-diagnosed patients with a PSA level of 4-10 ng/mL.