This study was performed to assess the effects of intravenous choline chloride and cytidine-5′-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) treatments on circulating platelet, white blood cell, and red blood cell counts and platelet functions in response to endotoxin. Saline (0.2mL/kg), choline chloride (20 mg/kg), or CDP-choline (70 mg/kg) were given intravenously three times at 4-h intervals, and endotoxemia was induced by endotoxin (E. coli 055:B5, 20 μg/kg) infusion, 5 min after the first treatment. Blood samples were collected before and at multiple time points after the challenge, for a panel of hematologic parameters and platelet closure times measured by PFA-100™. In saline-treated dogs, circulating platelet counts decreased by 85% (P < 0.001) at 0.5 h and remained low by 36%-80% (P < 0.5-0.001) 1-12 h after endotoxin. Circulating WBC counts decreased by 80%-90% (P < 0.001) at 0.5-2 h, and increased (P < 0.001) by 190% 12 h after the endotoxin. In response to endotoxin, RBCs increased by 10%-13% (P < 0.05) at 1-12 h. Endotoxin-induced decline in circulating platelets was attenuated at 0.5 h (P < 0.05-0.01) and reversed at 1-12 h (P < 0.05-0.001) by choline. Platelet closure times were shortened from 81 ± 10s and 135 ± 10 s to 29 ± 5 s (P < 0.001) and 60 ± 3 s (P < 0.001) at 0.5 h, and prolonged (P < 0.001) at 1-8 h after endotoxin induction. Endotoxin-induced shortening in platelet closure times was attenuated (P < 0.05) and blocked (P < 0.01) by choline and CDP-choline, respectively. These results showed that choline and CDP-choline treatments improved circulating platelet counts and platelet function during endotoxemia in dogs. Copyright © 2006 by the Shock Society.