Atypical antipsychotic drugs are widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia. These agents are discovered to have some additional beneficial effects beyond their effectiveness as antipsychotic drugs. Among these initially unexpected effects are their potential effects as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder and their efficacy in improving long-term outcome in schizophrenia. These effects recently raised the question whether these drugs may also have some neuroprotective effect in the brain. To examine this matter, in this study we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of olanzapine after permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Anaesthetized male C57BL/6j mice were submitted to permanent thread occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Olanzapine (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) or vehicle was applied intraperitoneally just after permanent ischemia. Twenty-four hours after permanent ischemia, brain injury was evaluated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC). Olanzapine (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) showed significant neuroprotection after permanent focal cerebral ischemia. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.