Changes in the Pulmonary Artery Wave Reflection in Dogs with Experimentally-Induced Acute Pulmonary Embolism and the Effect of Vasodilator


Yoshida T., Mandour A. S. , Matsuura K., Shimada K., El-Husseiny H. M. , Hamabe L., ...More

ANIMALS, vol.11, no.7, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ani11071977
  • Title of Journal : ANIMALS
  • Keywords: dogs, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary embolism, right ventricular function, wave reflection, wave intensity analysis, VASCULAR-DISEASE, RIGHT VENTRICLE, NITRIC-OXIDE, HYPERTENSION, CAPACITANCE, PRESSURE, SILDENAFIL, DIAGNOSIS, STIFFNESS, SURVIVAL

Abstract

Simple Summary Pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains a fatal disease, despite the advances in disease-specific therapies. This may be because the assessment of pulmonary hemodynamics in PH has not been established. Recently, several studies have reported that the pulmonary arterial wave reflection (PAWR) might influence the right ventricular afterload and could provide additional information regarding the severity and progression of PH. However, the pathophysiology of PAWR has some unclear points particularly in the case of acute pulmonary embolism (APE). The objective of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the characteristics of PAWR in a dog model of APE using dual-tipped sensor wire. From the result of the present study, after dogs developed PH by injections of dextran microsphere, PAWR was increased significantly along with the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and reduced after vasodilator administration. In addition, PAWR was significantly correlated with PVR and right ventricular fractional area of change (FAC). These results indicating that PAWR may be useful as a new evaluation method in PH and may detect changes related to right ventricular afterload earlier than pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex syndrome that has been frequently diagnosed in dogs and humans and can be detected by Doppler echocardiography and invasive catheterization. Recently, PAWR attracts much attention as a noninvasive approach for the early detection of PH. The present study aims to investigate the PAWR changes in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) and highlight the response of PAWR variables to vasodilator therapy in dogs. For this purpose, anesthesia and catheterization were performed in 6 Beagle dogs. After that, APE was experimentally conducted by Dextran microsphere administration, followed by vasodilator (Nitroprusside; 1 mu g/kg/min/IV) administration. The hemodynamics, echocardiography, PVR and PAWR variables were evaluated at the baseline, after APE and after administration of nitroprusside. The result showed a significant increase in PVR, PAP, tricuspid regurgitation (TR) as well as PAWR variables following APE induction compared with the baseline (p < 0.05). Vasodilation caused by administration of nitroprusside reduced the mean atrial pressure, PVR and PAWR parameters. There were a significant correlation and linear regression between PAWR indices and PVR as well as right ventricular function parameters. In conclusion, PAWR is not only correlated with PVR but also the right ventricular function parameter, which indicates that PAWR may be useful as a new evaluation method in PH, considering that PAWR can assess both right ventricular afterload and right ventricular function.