Research in veterinary science, vol.141, pp.116-128, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
Endotoxin shock is associated with severe impairments in cardiovascular and respiratory functions. We showed previously that choline or cytidine-5′ -diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) provides beneficial effects in experimental endotoxin shock in dogs. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of choline or CDP-choline on endotoxin-induced cardiovascular and respiratory dysfunctions. Dogs were treated intravenously (i.v.) with saline or endotoxin (LPS, 0.1 mg/kg) 5 min before i.v. infusion of saline, choline (20 mg/kg) or CDP-choline (70 mg/kg). Blood pressure, cardiac rate, myocardial and left ventricular functions, respiratory rate, blood gases, serum electrolytes and cardiac injury markers were determined before and at 0.5-48 h after endotoxin. Plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), catecholamine and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured 2 h and 24 h after the treatments. Endotoxin caused immediate and sustained reductions in blood pressure, cardiac output, pO2 and pH; changes in left ventricular functions, structure and volume parameters; and elevations in heart rate, respiratory rate, pCO2 and serum electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, Ca and P). Endotoxin also resulted in elevations in blood levels of cardiac injury markers, TNF-α, HMGB1, catecholamine and NO. In choline- or CDP-choline-treated dogs, all endotoxin effects were much smaller in magnitude and shorter in duration than observed values in controls. These data show that treatment with choline or CDP-choline improves functions of cardiovascular and respiratory systems in experimental endotoxemia and suggest that they may be useful in treatment of endotoxin shock in clinical setting.