A common observation after in vitro matured oocyte is that they yield poorer embryo quality compared to their in vivo counterparts. This study was designed to assess chromosomal status with metaphase comparative genomic hybridization after in vitro maturation (IVM) in unstimulated cycles and compare the results with those obtained after in vivo maturation. Patients without any obstetrical or gynecological pathology were admitted into the study. IVM oocytes were collected 36 h post hCG and matured in vitro at 37A degrees C in 5% O-2, 6% CO2, and 89% air for 36 h. All matured (metaphase II) oocytes were subject to polar body 1 (PB-1) biopsy and vitrified individually. PB-1 samples were transferred into 0.25 cc PCR tubes containing 2.5 mu l of PBS. PB-1 samples from 12 IVM patients were studied. Twenty-six out of 63 PB-1 samples (41%) were determined as euploid and 37 samples (59%) were aneuploid, whereas these values were 42% euploid and 58% aneuploid in the control group (in vivo matured oocytes). No statistical differences were found between the IVM and the control groups for euploid-aneuploid samples (P = 0.900). More aneuploidy was observed on chromosomes 11, 13, 15, 21, and 22 after IVM. Results show a non-significant rate of abnormal PB-1 formation after IVM compared to in vivo maturation. More aneuploidy was observed in chromosomes 11, 13, 15, 21, and 22 in the IVM group.