Abnormal fetuses, neonates, and adult offspring derived by assisted reproductive technologies have been reported in humans and mice and have been associated with increased likelihood of certain adult diseases. To test the hypothesis that bovine females derived by assisted reproductive technologies have altered postnatal growth and adult function, a retrospective cohort study evaluated survival, growth, and production traits of offspring derived by in vitro embryo production (IVP) with conventional (IVP-conv) or reverse X-sorted semen (IVP-sexed), multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, and artificial insemination (AI) in a large dairy herd. Live calves produced by IVP were born slightly heavier compared with AI calves. In addition, IVP-sexed calves had a higher cumulative mortality from 90 to 180 d of age compared with AI offspring. Mortality of IVP-conv and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer offspring was intermediate and not different from AI or IVP-sexed offspring. The altered phenotype of offspring from IVP-sexed extended to adult milk production. Cows derived by IVP-sexed produced less milk, fat, and protein in their first lactation compared with dairy cows derived by AI. Additionally, females born to nulliparous dams had a distinct postnatal phenotype compared with offspring from parous dams even when data were restricted to offspring of surrogate females. In conclusion, procedures associated with in vitro production of embryos involving use of reverse-sorted spermatozoa for fertilization result in an alteration of embryonic programming that persists postnatally and causes an effect on milk production in adulthood. Thus, some benefits of reverse-sorted semen for genetic improvement may be offset by adverse programming events.