Journal of Dairy Science, vol.91, no.12, pp.4492-4500, 2008 (SCI-Expanded)
The effect of tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) on the properties of yogurt gels was investigated. Various concentrations (0.05 to 0.2%) of TSPP were added to preheated (85° C for 30 min) reconstituted skim milk, which was readjusted to pH 6.50. Milk was inoculated with 2% starter culture and incubated at 42°C until the pH reached 4.6. Acid-base buffering profiles of milk and total and soluble calcium levels were measured. Turbidity measurements were used to indicate changes in casein dispersion. Storage modulus (G′) and loss tangent (LT) values of yogurts were monitored during fermentation using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Large deformation properties of gels were also measured. Microstructural properties of yogurt were observed using fluorescence microscopy. The addition of TSPP resulted in the disappearance of the buffering peak during acid titration at pH ∼5.1 that is due to the solubilization of colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP), and a new peak was observed at lower pH values (pH 4.0-4.5). The buffering peak at pH 6.0 during base titration virtually disappeared with addition of TSPP and a new peak appeared at pH ′4.8. The addition of TSPP reduced the soluble Ca content of milk and increased case-inbound Ca values. The addition of up to 0.125% TSPP resulted in a reduction in turbidity because of micelle dispersion but at 0.15%, turbidity increased and these samples exhibited a time-dependent increase in turbidity because of aggregation of casein particles. Gels made with 0.20% TSPP were very weak and had a very high gelation pH (6.35), probably due to complete dispersion of the micelle structure in this sample. The LT value of gels at pH 5.1 decreased with an increase in TSPP concentration, probably due to the loss of CCP with the addition of TSPP. The G′ values at pH 4.6 of gels made with ≤0.10% TSPP were not significantly different but the addition of ≥0.125% TSPP significantly decreased G′ values. The addition of 0.05 to 0.125% TSPP to milk resulted in a reduction in the yield stress values of yogurt compared with yogurt made without TSPP. Greater TSPP levels (>0.125%) markedly reduced the yield stress values of yogurt. Lowest whey separation levels were observed in yogurts made with 0.10% TSPP. High TSPP levels (>0.10%) greatly increased the apparent pore size of gels. Addition of very low levels of TSPP to milk for yogurt manufacture may be useful in reducing the whey separation defect, but at TSPP concentrations ≥0.125% very weak gels were formed. © American Dairy Science Association, 2008.