Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is a short-season grain crop in semi-arid regions of North and South America and Asia. The objective of this study was to evaluate seeding rates and nitrogen (N) fertilization on proso millet seed yield, crude protein levels, and biomass yield under irrigated and dryland conditions in a Mediterranean-type transition climate near Bursa, Turkey. Seeds per panicle, panicle length, seed weight per panicle, fertile tillers, protein yield, and plant height were also evaluated. Results indicated seeding rate did not affect seed yield significantly. Seed and protein yield increased with increasing N doses although biomass did not significantly increase. Panicle length, seeds per panicle, and seed weight per panicle decreased with increasing seeding rates. This study proved proso millet can be grown for grain and forage as a short-season dryland and irrigated rotational crop in a Mediterranean-type climate.