Purpose:The objective of this study was to investigate and compare corneal thicknesses of prematurely born and full-term early school-aged children, who were grouped into birth weight categories according to gestational age.Methods:This cross-sectional study included 136 school-aged white children. They were grouped as premature (born before 37 weeks of gestation) and full term (born at or after 37 weeks of gestation). These 2 groups were further divided into birth weight groups according to gestational age as small, appropriate, and large for gestational age. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured by ultrasound pachymetry. The intraocular pressures of both groups were measured by a Goldmann applanation tonometer.Results:The study included right eyes of 136 children. There were 53 girls and 83 boys whose mean age was 6.5 0.9 years (range: 5-8 yrs). Mean pachymetry of the small for gestational age group (526.8 +/- 37.9 m) in prematurely born children was significantly lower than that of appropriate for gestational age (554.6 +/- 34.2 m) (P = 0.039, mean difference 27.8, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-54.5). When prematurely born and full-term children are compared, the mean pachymetric values of the term children (574.5 +/- 37.8 m) were found to be significantly higher than those of the prematurely born children (545.4 +/- 35.6 m) (P 0.001).Conclusions:Birth parameters affect CCT in early school-aged children. Prematurely born, small for gestational age children have lesser CCT. This should be kept in mind at their follow-ups.