An outbreak of tularemia occurred in three provinces in Turkey in February 2004 and reemerged in the same provinces in February 2005. A total of 61 cases, 54 of which were confirmed with the micro-agglutination test, were diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia. No culture for Francisella tularensis was attempted, but PCR for F. tularensis was positive in aspiration material of suppurated lymphadenitis of 7 patients. F. tularensis detection with PCR was negative in water samples, but epidemiologic and environmental findings suggested that contaminated water or food was the cause of the outbreaks. Late initiation antibiotic therapy could not prevent suppuration and draining of the involved lymph nodes.