Integrated environmental impact and risk assessment in rural women entrepreneurs

GÜRBÜZ İ. B., Ozkan G.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.27, no.19, pp.23837-23848, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 19
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-020-08753-w
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.23837-23848
  • Keywords: Rural women, Women entrepreneurs, Environmental pollution, Climate change, TOURISM, SMES, ENTERPRISES, RESILIENCE
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


This study set out to reveal to what extent women entrepreneurs operating in rural areas have been affected by environmental pollution and climate change. Besides, it emphasises how much they will be affected over the next 5 years throughout Turkey. The study covered rural areas of all seven regions in Turkey. Findings were analysed by using SPSS 23 programme. Women entrepreneurs were younger in less developed regions of the country, such as the Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Anatolia, and were older in the more economically developed coastal areas. One-third of the respondents were microentrepreneurs; 12% employ five or more workers. The problems of rural women entrepreneurs are further complicated by environmental pollution and climate change. Among the significant environmental issues, women entrepreneurs endure a loss of income, loss of trade stock/goods, and loss of livestock, property damage and potable water supply. Women entrepreneurs agreed that, in the next 5 years, environmental problems would adversely affect customer demand, the quality of raw materials they use and the products they offer; therefore, customer demand would reduce. On the other hand, they were divided in their opinion about whether environmental problems will be affecting their business location and the need to invest in technology and equipment. The study showed that none of the participants obtained disaster insurance, and none of them was members of an environmental organisation.