HOXB13 is a homeobox protein that is expressed in normal adult prostate and colon tissues; however, its deregulated expression was evidenced in various malignancies. To characterize the putative role of HOXB13 in cell cycle progression, we performed overexpression and siRNA-mediated knockdown studies in PC-3 and LNCaP cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses were also performed using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues containing normal, H-PIN and PCa sections from 20 radical prostatectomy specimens. Furthermore, when the role of HOXB13 during cell cycle progression, association with cyclins, cell growth and colony formation using real-time cell proliferation were assessed, we observed that ectopic expression of HOXB13 accumulated cells at G1 through decreasing the cyclin D1 level by promoting its ubiquitination and degradation. This loss slowed S phase entry in both cell lines examined, with an associated decrease in pRb((S780) and ()S(795)) phosphorylations. Contrary, siRNA-mediated depletion of HOXB13 expression noticeably increased cyclin levels, stabilized E2F1 and CDC25C, subsequent to increased pRb phosphorylations. This increase in Cyclin B1 and CDC25C both together facilitated activation of cyclin B complex via dephosphorylating CDK1((T14Y15)), and resumed the G2/M transition after nocodazole synchronization. Despite an increase in the total expression level and cytoplasmic retention of HOXB13 in H-PIN and PCa samples that were observed via IHC evaluation of prostate tissues, HOXB13 depletion facilitated to an increase in PC-3 and LNCaP cell proliferation. Thus, we suggest that HOXB13 expression is required for cell cycle regulation, and increases by an unknown mechanism consequent to its functional loss in cancer. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.