Additively manufactured calcium phosphate reinforced CoCrMo alloy: Bio-tribological and biocompatibility evaluation for load-bearing implants


Bandyopadhyay A., Shivaram A., Isik M., Avila J. D. , Dernell W. S. , Bose S.

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, vol.28, pp.312-324, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.addma.2019.04.020
  • Journal Name: ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.312-324
  • Keywords: CoCrMo alloys, Load-bearing implants, Metal ion release, Tribofilms, Surface modification, CR-MO ALLOY, COBALT-CHROMIUM ALLOY, MECHANICAL-PROPERTIES, WEAR BEHAVIOR, BASE ALLOY, IN-VIVO, HYDROXYAPATITE, TITANIUM, DEBRIS, MICROSTRUCTURE
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: No

Abstract

Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys are widely used in load-bearing implants; specifically, in hip, knee, and spinal applications due to their excellent wear resistance. However, due to in vivo corrosion and mechanically assisted corrosion, metal ion release occurs and accounts for poor biocompatibility. Therefore, a significant interest to improve upon CoCrMo alloy exists. In the present work we hypothesize that calcium phosphate (CaP) will behave as a solid lubricant in CoCrMo alloy under tribological testing, thereby minimizing wear and metal ion release concerns associated with CoCrMo alloy. CoCrMo-CaP composite coatings were processed using laser engineered net shaping (LENS (TM)) system. After LENS (TM) processing, CoCrMo alloy was subjected to laser surface melting (LSM) using the same LENS (TM) set-up. Samples were investigated for micro-structural features, phase identification, and biocompatibility. It was found that LSM treated CoCrMo improved wear resistance by 5 times. CoCrMo-CaP composites displayed the formation of a phosphorus-based tribofilm. In vitro cell-material interactions study showed no cytotoxic effect. Sprague-Dawley rat and rabbit in vivo study displayed increased osteoid formation for CoCrMo-CaP composites, up to 2 wt.% CaP. Our results show that careful surface modification treatments can simultaneously improve wear resistance and in vivo biocompatibility of CoCrMo alloy, which can correlate to a reduction of metal ion release in vivo.