Blastocystis spp. is the most common enteric protist found in human feces. The pathogenic role of Blastocystis remains controversial and it has been suggested that the symptomatology of Blastocystis is associated with its subtypes (ST). However, only few studies have investigated the relationship between the symptomatology and subtypes of Blastocystis in children. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Blastocystis in children aged 3 to 13 years with or without gastrointestinal complaints and determine the distribution of the subtypes of Blastocystis. A total of 303 stool samples obtained from symptomatic (n = 84) and asymptomatic (n = 219) children were included in the study. The presence of Blastocystis was investigated using native-lugol examination, trichrome staining and real-time PCR method. Using the real-time PCR method, 115 samples were found positive for Blastocystis. Subtyping was successfully performed on 46 samples using sequenced-tagged site (STS) primers and PCR. The remaining 69 samples could not be subtyped. The most frequently detected subtype was ST3 (43.4%) followed by STI (26.1%), ST4 (10.9%) and ST2 (8.7%). The mixed subtypes were identified in five samples (10.9%) as; ST1 + ST3 (n = 3), STI + ST2 (n = 1) and ST2 + ST3 (n = I). None of the samples had ST5, ST6 or S17. No statistically significant difference was found between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups in terms of the Blastocystis positivity and the distribution of subtypes (p > 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the subtype distribution of Blastocystis in children in Turkey and the results are in agreement with the related data available in Turkey. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.