The present study aimed to evaluate choroidal changes and alternations within the structure of the retina prior to visible morphologic signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) cases. Two hundred and six eyes of 103 pediatric patients with T1D without DR and 88 eyes of 44 healthy controls were enrolled. They underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and optical coherence tomography evaluation. Choroidal thickness (ChT) measurements were performed manually on macular and peripapillary regions. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of age, intraocular pressure, and axial length (p > 0.05). ChT measurements of subfoveal, nasal, and temporal macula were slightly thinner in the diabetic group, and no statistical significance was found (p = 0.835, p = 0.305, and p = 0.054, respectively). Peripapillary ChT of eight sectors were also thinner in T1D; however, superonasal, nasal, inferonasal, and inferior sector values were significantly different (p = 0.010, p = 0.020, p = 0.019, and p = 0.018, respectively). In conclusion; this study demonstrated evidence of peripapillary choroidal thinning in pediatric diabetic patients without visible signs of retinopathy.