Prevalence and accompanying signs of pneumovagina and urovagina in dairy cows in the Southern Marmara region

Goncagul G., Intas K. S., Kumru I. H., Intas D. S.

TIERAERZTLICHE PRAXIS AUSGABE GROSSTIERE NUTZTIERE, vol.40, no.6, pp.359-366, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 40 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1055/s-0038-1623144
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.359-366
  • Keywords: Cow, endometritis, air-sucking, pneumovagina, urovagina, BODY CONDITION SCORE, HOLSTEIN COWS, CATTLE, ENDOMETRITIS, PARTURITION, INFERTILITY
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: Studies on the prevalence of pneumo- and urovagina in cows are rare. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the most common accompanying clinical signs of pneumo- and urovagina in dairy cows. Material and methods: Between 2007 and 2010 a total of 1167 Holstein and Brown Swiss cows were examined clinically and bacteriologically. Pneumovagina was diagnosed if air was sucked in or expelled from the vagina spontaneously at any time. Urovagina was defined as the accumulation of urine at the fornix of the vagina. Results: The prevalence of pneumovagina and urovagina were 19.2% (n = 224) and 3.1% (n = 36), respectively. Several clinical findings were accompanying pneumovagina in affected cows. 77.7% of cows having pneumovagina additionally displayed foamy vaginal discharge during estrous. Passive urinary flow out of the vulva could be observed due to pressure during rectal examination in some cows with urovagina. Bacteriological examination of uterine swaps from 111 cows with pneumovagina yielded a positive result in 95.5% of the cases. Uterine samples from 20 control animals were bacteriologically positive in 45% of the cases. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Pneumovagina in cows has a much higher prevalence than published before and causes uterine infection, endometritis and infertility due to fecal contamination. Urovagina is always an accompanying sign in severe cases of pneumovagina. Foamy vaginal discharge during estrous can be regarded as pathognomonic and early sign of pneumovagina also in very mild cases. Evacuation of the uterus after parturition and a decrease in body condition score due to negative energy balance causes an increased negative intraabdominal pressure. These conditions seem to trigger the development of pneumo- and urovagina. For this reason repeat-breeders and especially cows with foamy vaginal discharge during estrous, passive urinary leakage and an angulated vulva dorsal to the ischiadic arch should be carefully examined for pneumovagina.