Effects of the Dibenzofuran, Usnic Acid, on Inhibition of Ocular Biofilm Formation Due to Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

KIVANÇ S. A., AKOVA B., Kıvanç M.

Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, vol.29, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


BACKGROUND Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are gram-positive, aerobic, commensal bacteria found on the skin and mucus membranes, including the conjunctiva. Usnic acid (UA) is a dibenzofuran derivative isolated from lichens. This study aimed to investigate the effects of usnic acid on inhibition of ocular biofilm formation due to CoNS. MATERIAL AND METHODS Nine Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates, 5 Staphylococcus hominis isolates, 2 Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates, and 1 Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus lentus isolates were taken as test bacteria. They were inoculated into brain heart infusion broth and incubated for 24 hours at 35°C and activated. Antibiotic susceptibility was investigated by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Biofilm production was determined using the microtiter plate method and optical densitometry was measured at 570 nm using an automated microplate reader. Anti-biofilm activity of UA was determined by microtitration method and biofilm removal percentage was calculated. RESULTS All tested bacteria were found as high biofilm-producer strains; they were generally resistant to methicillin, but susceptible to vancomycin. UA inhibited the biofilm formation of S. epidermidis isolates, ranging from 5.7% to 81.5%. It inhibited the biofilm formation of S. saprophyticus and S. lentus by 73.3% and 74.3%, respectively. There was no effect of UA on mature biofilms of S. epidermidis 17.7H, S. epidermidis 15.41, S. hominis 9.3, S. hominis 17.2H, S. saprophyticus, and S. lentus. CONCLUSIONS It was determined that UA exerted anti-biofilm activity on some CoNS isolated from the ocular surface. Anti-biofilm activity was found to be higher even in strains that did not show antibacterial activity.