Newly-formulated zinc-bismuth-barium-sodium-silicate glass system with lead oxide addition: Probing radiation shielding characteristics via triple methodology

Kavas T., Kuluozturk Z. N., Kurtulus R., Demir N.

Optik, vol.290, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 290
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijleo.2023.171274
  • Journal Name: Optik
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Keywords: Characterization, Gamma shielding, Glass, PbO, Radiation protection
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


In recent times, glass materials appear to be strong candidates for radiation protection applications. In this study, a zinc-bismuth-barium-sodium-silicate (ZBBSS) glass system with a formulation of 10ZnO – 20Bi2O3 – 5BaO – 15Na2O – (50-x) SiO2 – xPbO, x: 0, 5, 15 and 25 wt% was synthesized. The traditional melting technique (1325–1375 °C) enabled the synthesis of four different glass samples coded ZBBSS1 to ZBBSS4. Following synthesis, Archimedes' principle, XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis, and DSC techniques showed physical, structural, optical, and thermal property alterations as a function of PbO inclusion, while the triple methodology (experimental, theoretical, and simulation) revealed radiation attenuation aspects in a broader sense. According to the findings, ZBBSS1 had density of 3.1107 g/cm3 while the other samples had density values of 3.2285, 3.6053, and 4.0158 g/cm3 in respective order. The clear existence of non-crystalline structure for the ZBBSS glass series was reported. Similar vibrational modes were found for ZBBSS glass systems, and -OH, Si-OH, Si-O-Si, and Pb-O-Pb bonding types were assigned to peak formations. For determination of thermal properties, it was observed that Tg became lower, from 520.6 to 392.4 °C, in parallel to the increment in the PbO doping rate. Additionally, an increase in the PbO doping rate hindered the transmission phenomenon based on UV-Vis spectra. Gamma absorption coefficients were measured at six energies with four sources using the gamma spectroscopic system. The measured values were compared with the FLUKA code and Phy-X software. Experimental LAC values of 0.2463, 0.2729, 0.3064, and 0.3618 cm−1 were measured using a Cs-137 source for the ZBBSS glass series, respectively. The variation in the values obtained with the triple methodology overlapped with each other for all energies. Among the prepared glasses, the best LAC and MAC, thinnest HVL, lowest MFP and TF were determined for ZBBSS4 glass sample with maximum PbO content. From the results obtained, it is concluded that the addition of PbO is a useful way to improve the gamma attenuation capacity, and among the glasses examined, ZBBSS4 had superior protection against gamma rays.