Catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CABSIs) are common complications encountered with cancer treatment. The aims of this study were to analyze the factors associated with recurrent infection and catheter removal in pediatric hematology-oncology patients. All cases of CABSIs in patients attending the Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology between January 2008 and December 2010 were reviewed. A total of 44 episodes of CABSIs, including multiple episodes involving the same catheter, were identified in 31 children with cancer. The overall CABSIs rate was 7.4 infections per 1000 central venous catheter (CVC) days. The most frequent organism isolated was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS). The CVC was removed in nine (20.4%) episodes. We found that hypotension, persistent bacteremia, Candida infection, exit-side infection, neutropenia, and prolonged duration of neutropenia were the factors for catheter removal. There were 23 (52.2%) episodes of recurrence or reinfection. Mortality rate was found to be 9.6% in children with CABSIs. In this study, we found that CABSIs rate was 7.4 infections per 1000 catheter-days. CABSIs rates in our hematology-oncology patients are comparable to prior reports. Because CONS is the most common isolated microorganism in CABSIs, vancomycin can be considered part of the initial empirical regimen.