Congenital Anomalies of Coronary Arteries in Children: The Evaluation of 22 Patients


Uysal F. , BOSTAN Ö. M. , Semizel E., ŞENKAYA SIĞNAK I. , Asut E., ÇİL E.

PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY, vol.35, no.5, pp.778-784, 2014 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00246-013-0852-8
  • Title of Journal : PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.778-784
  • Keywords: ALCAPA, Children, Coronary arteriovenous fistulas, Dilated cardiomyopathy, PULMONARY-ARTERY, CLINICAL RELEVANCE, LEFT SINUS, ORIGIN, FISTULAS, EXPERIENCE, DIAGNOSIS, VALSALVA, REPAIR, ADULTS

Abstract

Although congenital coronary artery anomalies are seen in 0.6-1 % of adult patients undergoing coronary angiography, the data for the pediatric population are few. This study of 22 children with coronary artery anomalies evaluated them in terms of demographic and clinical features and analyzed their angiographic findings and surgical results. Databases in the Department of Pediatric Cardiology at the University of Uludag were searched for all the patients with a diagnosis of congenital coronary artery anomaly who underwent coronary angiography between 1993 and 2013. Patients with coexistent congenital heart disease were excluded from the study. The study noted 22 patients (0.9 %; 10 boys and 11 girls) with coronary artery anomalies. The mean age of these patients was 58.77 +/- A 52.04 months (range, 1 month-16 years). Coronary arteriovenous fistula (50 %) and anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) (36 %) were the most common anomalies. In addition, the study included one patient with diffuse coronary artery hypoplasia, one patient with muscular bridge, and one patient with left main coronary artery originating from the right aortic sinus valsalva. Of the 11 patients who had coronary atrioventricular fistula, 7 were asymptomatic, whereas 75 % of the patients with ALCAPA syndrome were admitted because of heart failure. Although 13 patients had an exact diagnosis by echocardiography, 50 % of the patients with ALCAPA syndrome had their diagnosis determined by catheter angiography performed because of severe mitral regurgitation or dilated cardiomyopathy. The mortality rate for all the patients was found to be 18.1 %. Eight patients with coronary arteriovenous fistula have been followed up without surgery to the present. In contrast, seven patients with ALCAPA syndrome have undergone surgery, and three have died. Two of these patients died during the postoperative period, and the remaining patient died suddenly during the preoperative period at home. Isolated congenital coronary artery anomalies are very rare in the pediatric population. Although most congenital coronary artery anomalies are clinically silent, they may be associated with severe symptoms in children. Recognition of potentially serious anomalies such as ALCAPA syndrome is mandatory so that early surgical treatment can be prescribed.