The Effect of Vertex and Edge Removal on Sombor Index

Creative Commons License


SYMMETRY-BASEL, vol.16, no.2, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 16 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/sym16020170
  • Journal Name: SYMMETRY-BASEL
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, zbMATH, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


A vertex degree based topological index called the Sombor index was recently defined in 2021 by Gutman and has been very popular amongst chemists and mathematicians. We determine the amount of change of the Sombor index when some elements are removed from a graph. This is done for several graph elements, including a vertex, an edge, a cut vertex, a pendant edge, a pendant path, and a bridge in a simple graph. Also, pendant and non-pendant cases are studied. Using the obtained formulae successively, one can find the Sombor index of a large graph by means of the Sombor indices of smaller graphs that are just graphs obtained after removal of some vertices or edges. Sometimes, using iteration, one can manage to obtain a property of a really large graph in terms of the same property of many other subgraphs. Here, the calculations are made for a pendant and non-pendant vertex, a pendant and non-pendant edge, a pendant path, a bridge, a bridge path from a simple graph, and, finally, for a loop and a multiple edge from a non-simple graph. Using these results, the Sombor index of cyclic graphs and tadpole graphs are obtained. Finally, some Nordhaus-Gaddum type results are obtained for the Sombor index.