Exergoeconomic analysis and multi-objective optimization of ORC configurations via Taguchi-Grey Relational Methods

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Özdemir Küçük E., Kılıç M.

Heliyon, vol.9, no.4, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 9 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e15007
  • Journal Name: Heliyon
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: ANOVA, Exergooeconomic, Grey relational analysis, Optimization, Organic rankine cycle, Taguchi, Waste heat recovery
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Recovery of low-grade waste heat in industrial processes is an essential energy management topic. Yet, most low-temperature heat sources discharge their heat directly into the environment. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), which has the benefits of being energy-efficient, enabling investment savings, and being ecologically friendly, is crucial in recycling energy from low-temperature waste heat. Both the application of the optimum cycle design and the provision of optimum working conditions are the issues that need to be focused on efficiently using energy. This study performs the energy, exergy, and exergoeconomic analysis of four different organic Rankine cycle configurations operating with renewable or low grade waste heat. The effect degrees and ratios of selected control factors are calculated using Taguchi and variance analysis methods to compare thermal and exergy efficiencies, total system cost, and unit cost of electricity produced by the system. The objective function of the multi-objective optimization problem is defined, and its solution is realized with the Taguchi-Grey Relational Analysis method. The best thermodynamic and exergoeconomic performance result is calculated for the configuration of ORC with Feed Fluid Heater-Internal Heat Exchanger (IHE–FFH–ORC). As a result of Taguchi and ANOVA analysis, the factors that most affect the thermal efficiency of the system, the exergy efficiency, the total system investment cost, and the unit cost of the electricity produced are, respectively, the evaporation temperature (∼50%), turbine efficiency (∼25%), working fluid (∼20%), subcooling (∼4%), pump efficiency (∼0.05%), and superheating (∼0.05%). As a result of the optimization process, the thermal and exergy efficiencies, the total system cost and the unit cost of produced electricity for the IHE–FFH–ORC power system are calculated as 22.6% and 73.5%, 1.06 $/h, 0.039 $/kWh and 2.9 years, respectively.