International Congress on Medicine, Life Science, and Healthcare, Ankara, Turkey, 21 - 23 February 2022, vol.1, no.5, pp.57-58
In dairy cattle, the economic importance of laminitis is gradually increasing worldwide. Apart from its significant economic harms to farms, laminitis is also a welfare problem. It causes a decrease in milk production and reproductive performance, weight loss, and an increase in culling rates and treatment fees. Recently, it is the third most important problem in dairy cattle farms after infertility and mastitis. The vast majority of the variability in cows’ feet and leg health is associated with environmental factors such as management factors and housing. However, recent molecular studies have pointed out the genetic sources of variation in corresponding diseases, especially laminitis. The molecular mechanisms underlying bovine laminitis are complex. It comprises the metabolical and immunological pathways associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and energy-producing molecules. The genetic approach can provide valuable clues about the genes linked to the development of laminitis in dairy cattle. Variations in the BoLA-DRB3, STAT5A, FGF2, MMP-13, and HP genes have been associated with bovine laminitis. Many different genes may contribute the claw health directly or indirectly, which indicates a polygenic inheritance. Although QTL and genome-wide studies on feet and leg traits have been published, genomic perspectives about laminitis-related claw disorders are relatively limited. BTA1, BTA5, BTA7-BTA11, BTA13, BTA15, BTA17, BTA18, BTA21-BTA23, and BTA26 were associated with feet and leg conformation traits. Precisely high milk production-oriented breeding practices have led to ignorance of major disorders such as laminitis-related claw disorders in dairy cattle. Genetic methods can provide significant insights to early diagnosis, prognosis, and the eradication of laminitis-related disorders. Therefore, this study aimed at the genotypic background of bovine laminitis. In this sense, recent knowledge on the genetic markers and genome-wide approaches associated with the development of laminitis will be discussed based on sustainable dairy cattle selection applications.