Screening of simple carbohydrates as a renewable organocatalyst for the efficient construction of 1,3-benzoxazine scaffold

YILDIRIM A., Kaya Y., Goker M.

CARBOHYDRATE RESEARCH, vol.510, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 510
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.carres.2021.108458
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: 1, 3-Benzoxazines, Carbohydrates, DFT studies, Organocatalysis, Sustainable chemistry, ASYMMETRIC CATALYSIS, ACID ORGANOCATALYSIS, RAW-MATERIALS, C-H, GREEN, BENZOXAZINES, FRUCTOSE, GLUCOSE, TOOLS
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


A convenient protocol for the two component preparation of 1,3-benzoxazines by using several protected and unprotected carbohydrate molecules as organocatalysts have been developed which is broadly applicable to condensation reaction between variety of Mannich bases and paraformaldehyde. This study revealed that fructose have much higher catalytic activity than the other carbohydrates and can be an alternative to metalcontaining catalysts as a green renewable organocatalyst for efficient and rapid construction of 1,3-benzoxazine skeleton. In this context, 21 benzoxazine compounds were successfully synthesized and spectral characterizations of these compounds were carried out by spectroscopic methods and elemental analysis. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the detailed mechanism of organocatalyst assisted synthesis of the benzoxazine monomers. The results obtained from these calculations showed that the more realistic reaction pathway involves formation of a phenolate based intermediate which loses a water molecule to form benzenaminium ion. Subsequently, this ion provides the formation of the corresponding benzoxazines with good yields through the intramolecular ring closure step.