Network Theoretical Approach to Explore Factors Affecting Signal Propagation and Stability in Dementia's Protein-Protein Interaction Network


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Lalwani A. K. , Krishnan K., Bagabir S. A. , Alkhanani M. F. , Almalki A. H. , Haque S., ...More

BIOMOLECULES, vol.12, no.3, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/biom12030451
  • Journal Name: BIOMOLECULES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: dementia, network medicine, GWAS, HSP90AA1, EGFR, signal propagation, CHAPERONE-MEDIATED AUTOPHAGY, EPIDERMAL-GROWTH-FACTOR, FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS, FACTOR RECEPTOR, MEMORY LOSS, GENE, TAU, COMPLEX, TDP-43

Abstract

Dementia-a syndrome affecting human cognition-is a major public health concern given to its rising prevalence worldwide. Though multiple research studies have analyzed disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Frontotemporal dementia using a systems biology approach, a similar approach to dementia syndrome as a whole is required. In this study, we try to find the high-impact core regulating processes and factors involved in dementia's protein-protein interaction network. We also explore various aspects related to its stability and signal propagation. Using gene interaction databases such as STRING and GeneMANIA, a principal dementia network (PDN) consisting of 881 genes and 59,085 interactions was achieved. It was assortative in nature with hierarchical, scalefree topology enriched in various gene ontology (GO) categories and KEGG pathways, such as negative and positive regulation of apoptotic processes, macroautophagy, aging, response to drug, protein binding, etc. Using a clustering algorithm (Louvain method of modularity maximization) iteratively, we found a number of communities at different levels of hierarchy in PDN consisting of 95 "motif-localized hubs", out of which, 7 were present at deepest level and hence were key regulators (KRs) of PDN (HSP9OAA1, HSP90AB1, EGFR, FYN, JUN, CELF2 and CTNNA3). In order to explore aspects of network's resilience, a knockout (of motif-localized hubs) experiment was carried out. It changed the network's topology from a hierarchal scale-free topology to scalefree, where independent clusters exhibited greater control. Additionally, network experiments on interaction of druggable genome and motif-localized hubs were carried out where UBC, EGFR, APP, CTNNB1, NTRK1, FN1, HSP9OAA1, MDM2, VCP, CTNNA1 and GRB2 were identified as hubs in the resultant network (RN). We finally concluded that stability and resilience of PDN highly relies on motif-localized hubs (especially those present at deeper levels), making them important therapeutic intervention candidates. HSP9OAA1, involved in heat shock response (and its master regulator, i.e., HSF1), and EGFR are most important genes in pathology of dementia apart from KRs, given their presence as KRs as well as hubs in RN.