JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, vol.161, no.6, pp.382-388, 2013 (SCI-Expanded)
In vitro experiments showed that ammonium bicarbonate and aqueous extracts of oregano were effective in inhibiting conidia germination and germ-tube elongation of Venturia inaequalis. Complete inhibition was achieved by 1% ammonium bicarbonate, 2% oregano extract and 0.01% synthetic fungicide difenoconazole. Two orchard experiments were conducted on the highly susceptible cv. Mutsu to apple scab to investigate the efficacy of ammonium bicarbonate alone or in combination with an aqueous extract of oregano for the control of apple scab. In 2008 and 2009, except for the applications of 1% aqueous extract of oregano, the applications of ammonium bicarbonate (0.5 and 1%) and difenoconazole (0.01%) to trees at 10-day intervals significantly reduced disease incidence and severity on leaves and fruit compared to the water-treated control. In both years, the efficacy of 0.5 and 1% ammonium bicarbonate in inhibiting both disease incidence and severity on leaves and fruit was equally effective in all monthly assessments from June to September. Combining 0.5 and 1% ammonium bicarbonate with 1% aqueous extract of oregano did not significantly improve the efficacy of stand-alone applications of treatments in the final assessment in 2008 and 2009. All treatments were neither phytotoxic to leaves and fruit nor did they adversely affect quality parameters of fruit including physiological disorders and taste both at harvest and after storage. These results indicate that ammonium bicarbonate treatment may be applied as an alternative chemical for the control of apple scab.