This report describes an 11-year-old boy with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis. His only presenting symptom was severe anemia due to Iron deficiency. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was diagnosed nine years after the onset of symptoms. During this period many invasive and non-contributory investigations were performed. This report describes the patient's diagnostic problems, clinical features and dramatic improvement with chloroquine (250 mg/day) after failing to respond to megadose methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg). One year later, chloroquine was discontinued. The patient has remained in remission since March 1994. Chloroquine should be used for this life-threatening conditon since a is less toxic than other immunosuppressive drugs.