The Effect of Household Food Processing on Pesticide Residues in Oranges (Citrus sinensis)

Creative Commons License

YOLCI ÖMEROĞLU P., Acoglu Celik B., Koc Alibasoglu E.

Foods, vol.11, no.23, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 23
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/foods11233918
  • Journal Name: Foods
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: household food processing, orange, pesticide residues, processing factor
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 by the authors.In this study, the effect of various household food-processing methods (washing, peeling, processing into jam and fruit juice, freezing, storage) on pesticide residues (abamectin, buprofezin, ethoxazole, imazalil, and thiophanate-methyl) in oranges was investigated. Residue analyses were performed by quick-easy-cheap-efficient-rugged-safe (QuEChERS) extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The limit of quantification of the method for each pesticide was 10 µg/kg. Physicochemical properties of the pesticides and the type of the food process had a considerable effect on the fate of pesticide residue. Pesticide residues were mostly dispersed on orange peels and washing with tap water decreased the residue levels by 26–84%. The amount of residue in oranges was reduced by 63–100% during fruit juice processing, while residues were removed by 90–100% after jam processing. Pesticides with a high octanol–water coefficient were absorbed by the wax of the orange peel, therefore they remained on the peel and could not easily be removed by washing. Moreover, pesticides with lower water solubility did not diffuse easily through the fruit juices from the pulp section of the fruit. The processing factor was greater than 1 for the separation of the orange peel and less than 1 for the washing step and jam and fruit juice productions.