Poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate nanofibrous mats were produced by electrospinning method at optimum process parameters. Evaluation of alginate-based electrospun nanofibrous mats as a wound dressing material and their comparison to commercially available wound dressings produced with conventional methods were carried out in vivo. Tissue specimens were examined histopathologically on 4th, 6th, 15th, 21st postoperative days. In contrast to other dressings it was observed that nanofibrous mat could survive on the wound crust in early stages of healing. In terms of epithelization, epidermis characteristics, vascularization and formation of hair follicles, nanofibrous mat showed the best healing performance. This could be explained with presence of nanofibrous mat acting as an artificial skin on the wound region until new tissue regenerated.