Objective. To determine the rate, risk factors and outcome of Tuberculous Peritonitis (TBP) in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in our units. Design. Retrospectively, we reviewed the medical data of all CAPD patients from 12 centers for TBP, covering the period between 1986 and December 2002. Setting. All patients were from 12 renal clinics at tertiary-care university hospitals. Results. Ten cases of TBP were identified among the CAPD patients in our centers. There were five male and five female patients with a mean age of 37.2 years. None of the patients had tuberculosis history, 6 patients had predominance of PNL. One patient had coincidental bacterial peritonitis. Two patients were successfully treated without the removal of the Tenckhoff catheter. Conclusion. TBP in CAPD patients is a very rare complication. In contrast to predominance of lymphocytes in nonuremic patients with tuberculous peritonitis, CAPD patients with tuberculous peritonitis may have predominance of PNL on examination of the peritoneal fluid. Since TBP has high morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and treatment of disease are extremely important for improving outcome.