Demonstration of linkage and development of the first low-density genetic map of garlic, based on AFLP markers

Ipek M., Ipek A., Almquist S., Simon P.

THEORETICAL AND APPLIED GENETICS, vol.110, no.2, pp.228-236, 2005 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 110 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00122-004-1815-5
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.228-236
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a long-cultivated, clonally propagated diploid plant (2n=2x=16). With routine seed production now underway, we used populations (MP1 and MP2) generated by self-pollination of unrelated plants to generate two low-density genetic maps of garlic, consisting of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and gene-specific markers. We did not observe any two plants with identical marker patterns in either population, indicating that they were the result of amphimixis rather than apomixis. This is an important finding, since several Alliums are facultative apomicts. A total of 360 markers segregated in MP1 (12.8 AFLP markers per primer combination) and 321 markers segregated in MP2 (13.9 per primer combination) to indicate a fairly high level of genetic heterozygosity in the garlic nuclear genome. Of these markers, 15.3% in MP1 and 24.3% in MP2 had segregation ratios distorted from the expected 3: 1. Interestingly, 94.7% of those distorted segregations fit a 15: 1 segregation ratio for duplicated loci, suggesting extensive levels of duplication in the garlic genome and supporting similar observations for onion. The genetic map for the MP1 family with 216 markers spanned 1,166 cM of the garlic genome ( 5.4 cM average), while 143 markers of MP2 spanned 862 cM ( 6.0 cM average). Gene-specific markers for alliinase, chitinase, sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (SST-1), and chalcone synthase (CHS) were mapped, demonstrating the immediate utility of the garlic genetic map. These two garlic families had relatively few segregating AFLP markers in common, which supports their relatively distant relationship based on diversity analysis. Of those markers that were conserved, linkages were also conserved.