Objective: Working rate in patients with schizophrenia is considerably low. Nonetheless, unemployed patients might have desire to work and look for a job. Identifying the reasons underlying the patients' work motivation and related factors can be instructive for the vocational rehabilitation services. The purpose of this study was to determine the reasons for work motivation and to identify the predictors of motivation in unemployed patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Sociodemographic and working life information of 379 unemployed patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder diagnosed for at least two years was collected from six different centers. The patients were questioned about their desire to work and its reasons. Having desire to work and job seeking behavior together was considered as work motivation. Patients with and without having work motivation were compared regarding to their sociodemographic information and illness characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to find the factors predicting the work motivation. Results: The participants' mean age was 42, level of education was nine years, duration of illness was 18 years, and majority consisted of males and single patients. It was found that 33% of the patients were motivated to work. While distinct underlying reasons of the work motivation were found as financial needs (45%) and will for independent living (35%), idea of not being able to deal with the requirements of the job (66%) and not receiving social welfare payment (24%) were dominant in patients who weren't motivated to work. The predictors of work motivation were found as male gender (OR=2.0), having a profession (OR=2.0), having work experience after the illness (OR=1.2), level of education (OR=1.1), and duration of illness (OR=0.9). Conclusion: We found that one-third of unemployed patients with schizophrenia have work motivation as an important finding. The patients may feel more comfortable and motivated to work if they would continue to receive social welfare payment after they started a job. It could be concluded patients who have a profession, high level of education, previous job experience, and who are at the early stage of their illness are suitable candidates for the vocational rehabilitation services.