Assessment of methods for estimation of effective atomic numbers of common human organ and tissue substitutes: waxes, plastics and polymers

Singh V. P., Badiger N. M., Kucuk N.

RADIOPROTECTION, vol.49, no.2, pp.115-121, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 49 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1051/radiopro/2013090
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.115-121
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


We calculated mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and Kerma relative to air for human organ and tissue substitutes (i.e. wax, plastic and polymer materials). The effective atomic numbers of the tissue substitutes were calculated by the direct method, interpolation method, Auto-Z(eff) software and single value XMuDat program and then compared. The calculated effective atomic numbers were also compared with available experimental data and a good agreement was observed. A large difference in effective atomic numbers calculated by the direct and interpolation methods was observed in photoelectric and pair-production regions. The direct method was found to be appropriate for effective atomic number computation in low-(>10 keV) and medium-(0.1 <= E <= 10 MeV) photon energy regions. Kerma relative to air of the selected tissue substitutes was found to be dependent upon the atomic number and element compositions, which show a sharp peak due to K-edge absorption.