Oxidative Stress in Human Pathology and Aging: Molecular Mechanisms and Perspectives


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Hajam Y. A. , Rani R., Ganie S. Y. , Sheikh T. A. , Javaid D., Qadri S. S. , ...More

CELLS, vol.11, no.3, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/cells11030552
  • Title of Journal : CELLS
  • Keywords: oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, pathologies, mechanisms, aging, DNA-DAMAGE RESPONSE, SIGNAL-REGULATING KINASE-1, OXYGEN SPECIES ROS, MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTION, HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE, INSULIN-SECRETION, NADPH OXIDASE, FREE-RADICALS, CARDIAC-HYPERTROPHY, ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE

Abstract

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are generated through various endogenous and exogenous processes; however, they are neutralized by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. An imbalance between the generation and neutralization of oxidants results in the progression to oxidative stress (OS), which in turn gives rise to various diseases, disorders and aging. The characteristics of aging include the progressive loss of function in tissues and organs. The theory of aging explains that age-related functional losses are due to accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their subsequent damages and tissue deformities. Moreover, the diseases and disorders caused by OS include cardiovascular diseases [CVDs], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. OS, induced by ROS, is neutralized by different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and prevents cells, tissues and organs from damage. However, prolonged OS decreases the content of antioxidant status of cells by reducing the activities of reductants and antioxidative enzymes and gives rise to different pathological conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to discuss the mechanism of ROS-induced OS signaling and their age-associated complications mediated through their toxic manifestations in order to devise effective preventive and curative natural therapeutic remedies.