Evaluation of Short-term Memory, Working Memory, and Executive Functions in Patients with Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis


TURK NOROLOJI DERGISI, vol.28, no.3, pp.162-168, 2022 (ESCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.4274/tnd.2022.24992
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, EMBASE, Directory of Open Access Journals, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.162-168
  • Keywords: Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, cognitive impairment, short-term memory, working memory, executive functions, COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT, PERFORMANCE, DYSFUNCTION
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: To compare patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and healthy individuals in terms of short-term memory (STM), working memory (WM) and executive functions. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 33 patients with RRMS and 26 healthy participants. The groups were matched in terms of age, gender, level of education and hand dominance. The socio-demographic characteristics of the participants were recorded; and they were evaluated with Beck depression inventory and state/trait anxiety inventory. Visual aural digit span test B form, Wisconsin card sorting test, backward digit span task, stroop test T-BAG form, Wechsler memory scale: Revised form visual memory span subtest (WMS-R/VMS) and trail making test (TMT) for cognitive functions. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups in terms of depression and anxiety scores (p>0.05). Backward visual memory span calculated from WMS-R/VMS was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the RRMS group. However, there was no significant difference between groups in WMS-R/VMS and TMT scores (p>0.05). Conclusion: Results of this study indicate that patients with RRMS have lower visuo-spatial sketchpad capacity in their WM. However, there was no significant difference between patients with RRMS and healthy controls in terms of verbal and visuo-spatial STM capacity, phonological loop capacity in WM, perseveration, conceptualization, inhibition and set shifting skills.