Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) are two serum enzymes synthesized by the liver that are related with inflammation. The main objectives of this study were to determine changes in serum BChE and PON1 by using a canine model of endotoxemia, and to evaluate whether choline alters BChE and PON1 activities during inflammation. For this purpose, a total of 20 mongrel dogs were divided into four groups: control, choline (C), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and LPS + C. Dogs in the control group were injected with 0.9% NaCl (0.2 ml/kg, i.v.). Dogs in C and LPS + C groups received choline chloride (20 mg/kg, i.v., three times with 4 h intervals). Endotoxin was injected (0.02 mg/kg, i.v., once) to the dogs of LPS and LPS + C groups. Statistically significant decreases in BChE and PON1 activities in LPS group were detected 24 and 48 h post injection, respectively. No statistically significant changes in BChE and PON1 activities at different times were detected in control, C, or LPS + C groups. In conclusion, the data obtained in present study revealed a decrease in serum BChE and PON1 activities in dogs during experimentally induced endotoxemia and that choline administration attenuates these changes. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.