Olive pollen is one of the main causes of allergic disease in the Mediterranean area. Ten different proteins with allergenic activity have been described in olive pollen, with major allergen Ole e 1. Olea europaea L. may cause allergenic effects of different severity depending on the Ole e 1 content of cultivars. In this paper, we aimed to assess the heterogeneity of two olive cultivars concerning concentrations of the major allergen Ole e 1 during a period of 2 years. Pollens from two most common olive cultivars, known as "Gemlik" and "Celebi," were analyzed on regular basis. Ole e 1 amounts were measured by double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results were expressed as mu g of Ole e 1 per mu g of total freeze-dried extract. Comparisons of Ole e 1 levels were made both between individual trees and between cultivars. It was analyzed the influence of some meteorological parameters on pollen counts/allergenic content on a local scale, for 2 years. Pollen sampling was carried out continuously for 2 years, using a Hirst-type volumetric trap. "Gemlik" had the higher value (mean +/- standard deviation) of Ole e 1 content (2.44 +/- 0.70 and 1.87 +/- 1.03 mu g/mu g, respectively) when compared to "Celebi" (2.16 +/- 0.86 and 0.20 +/- 0.30 mu g/mu g, respectively) in the years 2013 and 2015. In our research, daily variations were observed in pollen samples of two olive cultivars and even different trees of the same cultivar. Furthermore, during certain sampling days, discrepancies between airborne pollen counts and Ole e 1 concentrations were detected for both cultivars. It was found that meteorological changes, especially temperature and precipitation fluctuations, could affect airborne pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in the atmosphere. Therefore, pollen samples of different O. europaea cultivars demonstrated great differences in Ole e 1 content. We believe that these findings were a result of alternate bearing behavior modulated by meteorological factors.