In total, 171 students from a boarding school in Izmir, Turkey, with mild and non-specific symptoms of toxoplasmosis, were screened during September-October 2002. All 171 students were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM. Of 43 students tested, 40 (93%) had low IgG avidity. None showed evidence of ophthalmic involvement. The data suggest that T. gondii may spread rapidly in close living conditions, possibly following exposure to cat litter. This is the largest recent outbreak of toxoplamosis described in the medical literature.