This study was undertaken to evaluate the application of autogenous fascia as a framework for a fibrocollagen tube for small-caliber vascular prostheses in Japanese white rabbits (n = 15). The fascia, measuring 10 X 40 mm. was harvested from the dorsal fascia and was carefully wrapped around a silicone rod of 1.5 mm in diameter. Then, the fascia-wrapped silicone rod was implanted into a subcutaneous pocket on the medial thigh. Four weeks later, the fascia-wrapped silicone rod was removed from the subcutaneous pocket. The rod was removed from the material, and the fascia-wrapped fibrocollagen tube was treated to make it antithrombogenic. Subsequently, the 1.5 x 10-mm fascia-wrapped tube was prepared as an arterial conduit. Using microvascular techniques, the tube was interposed into the divided femoral artery. Eleven of 15 grafts maintained patency over the follow-up period and no aneurysmal formation was found at any graft site. Microscopically, there was an ingrowth of endothelium with fibroblast proliferation from each end of the recipient vessel at 2 weeks after interposition; however, no neointima was found to line the center of the conduit. At 5 weeks after interposition, the neointimal growth rate was 70 percent. There was an ingrowth of endothelium with fibroblast proliferation from each end onto the entire internal surface of the conduit at 8 weeks after interposition. Further study is required before any long-term conclusions can be drawn.