The number of fungal infections observed in hospitalized patients has been gradually increasing in recent years. Bloodstream infections due to Candida spp. constitute the majority of hospital-acquired fungal infections. Two-thirds of all candidemias occur in patients in the intensive care units. Early initiation of appropriate treatment decreases high mortality in these cases. On the other hand, difficulty in diagnosis, economic cost of drug treatments, development of resistance, and effect of unnecessary drug use on ecology are major obstacles to the initiation of treatment. The recommendations on which conditions, in which patients, and when and which antifungal therapy should be initiated are discussed in this review.